rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP gPOAnPL E`nPL``u`bPL kPPAE`hPFnPLQ

(1) "aAjPL ujPLzAðsÔPArPA``utPO sPFHPAvhPF ugPO``uCPF HP``unPL"-- rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP ePvhPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF tPOAÿrP kPPE`nPLîPO FpOLUÀeOL` SPFmPFQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP mFÖtUOzrP aE`BPOGPLA``utPO tPOArPvhPF aHPzHPHPE`hPFtPO pPOL``u`rP rPE`cPFtPO hPFbPL HP``ulP çpPOLcPFE`lPtPO E`kPPÙUO ¦AÙPOPP|

SPFmPFQÓLçLdPLnPLATP mFU``uËP``u`rP uHPwxPFA``utPO EgPO``u`bPL kPP``ulPrPAbPL aAÀePÝAÙPO hPFnPL ePHPM rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP sPFA¾PPA``utPOvhPF mPFArPA yPAnPL (23``uSPF nPL``uBPOÈ÷PrP, 1907)PP| pPOL``u`rP kPPE`HP ePkPP E`cPFE`VPF``utPO E`lPKP``ulPnPL: "SPFmPFQ uyP rPA``uÀeOL` cPF``ulP ugPOlP, tPOArP pPOL``u`rPrP rPA``uÀeOL` u`rP``ulP aAsPF``utPO aAsPF``utPO udPLKPlUmPF ujPLzAðsÔPAbPL aAkPPASPF uBPO``usPF yPA``u©CPF, ukPPATPAoPF E`kPPCUF kPPmPF pPOL``uwxPF``uCPF tPOArP lP¾PPNP unPLvhPFPP|" ePE`WvPFvhPF ¦AÙPO DPFArPNPArP wvPOðsPF hPF``utPO pPOLA``u`rPPP|

gPOAnPLE`WvPFrP sFÖE`êPL E`nPL``u`bPL dLUjPLnPL çpPOLtPOz¾PPdPLSPFYQrP-- cPFArPqcPFÓLçLdPL HP``uÓOdPzApPOLADPFzAbPL oPF amPFlP uhPFAmPF-- E`HPHPrPNP pPOLAoPFbPLA yPAbPLPP| cPFArPqcPFÓLçLdPL E`lPKP``uCPFnPL: "``ukPPA``unPLA ePkPP wvPOðsPFHP wvPOpPOLlP``u¾PP aAmPFrPA HPhUF ulPAkPP uHPAlPFpOLU``u`rP EgPO``u`bPLE`CPFlPAmPFPP| KLUHP sPFÆPFHP 'rPAjPLA' nPLAWvPFkPP aE`BPOnPLbPL wvPOpPOLlP``u¾PPPP| HPsPFÙPOkPPAlP, ujPLzAðsÔPA rPAEÀeOL`PP| ..."

HPAE`kPP aMSPF oPF gPOAnPLE`WvPFrP E`HPSPFdPL E`HPHPrPNP pPOLwxPF``utPO HPA gPOAnPLE`WvPF SFUnPL``utPO cPFAvhPF``ulP ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrPqnPL@P|

(2) "tUOE`mPF ukPPmPFnPL kPP``u`rP gPOAnPL kPP``u`rPA uhPF gOUNPQ" - - ukPPA``unPLA ESPFÜPQrP sPFËPQtPO pPOLE`rP``uHPSPF``unPL aE`BPOBZOtPO hPF``u`bPL rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP sPF``uËP sPF``uËP ePvhPF gPOAnPL sFÖE`êPL kPP``u`rP ugPO``u`bPL SFUE`nPL``u`bPLE`CPF``ulPnPL HP``ulP çpPOLcPFE`lPtPO aA``uCPF| ePvhPF "tPOAð¾PPE`NPkPP" HPzApPOLArPWvPFA E`VPFkPP nPLbPLP| dLUjPLnPL dPLSPFY``ukPPrP HPNPYnPLA pPOLAoPFbPLA yPAbPL GPLWvPFnPLAE`WvPF sPFÈOLpPOL``ukPPY, ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP pPOLwxPF``utPO oPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF SFU``unPL E`nPL``utPO pPOLA``u`rPnPLP|...

(3) "``uhPF mPFADPFHPQ E`ªPDPFA ukPPnPL"--rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP BÖOtPOz HPnPLmPFAlPQ ukPPA``unPLA kPPArP``uNP kPPE`HPrP GPL``u`rPrP sPFAmPF``unPL nPL yP``uyP´ nPL tPO``uëPO´ hPF``u`bPL E`ªPDPFA kPPrPE`CPFlPP| usPFvhPF udPL``uKP rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP ePvhPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF ulP``uKPnPL, ePmPFnPL ePkPPWvPFA ¦AÙPO kPPTPA çpPOLcPFE`lPtPO aA``uCPFP| aAsPFlP GPLWvPFnPLA E`kPP, kPPE`HPrP E`nPL``ujPLrP kPPTPA ePHPM kPPTPAE`WvPFrP E`HPãPFÉPbPLkPPrP wvPOðsPF jPLAnPLHPArP ePHPM usPFvhPF sPF``uËP gPOAnPLE`WvPF SFUnPL``utPO cPFAvhPF``ulP ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrPqnPL ...

(4) rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP ulPKPA 'jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP" gPOAnPLE`WvPF E`nPL``u`bPL uTP``ukPP uTP``ukPPvhPF ePkPPWvPFA DFU``u`bPLA oPF``uVPF uyP ePvhPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF E`tPOE`nPL E`lP``uKPE`CPF``ulPnPL vhPFMlPzA``uLÕPLSL÷PrP pPOLÏPOmPF jPL``ujPLYrP çpPOLSPFE`éPF E`hPF``usPF``uHP-- yPKPnPL jPLjPLY BPOArP``utPO aA``usPFnPLP| aHPSPFzvhPF vhPFnPL²WvPFArP``unPL``uWvPFrP kPPlPzA``uNP DFU``u`bPLAE`WvPFrP ædPqtPO ePHPM HPhUFlP çpPOLcPFArPoPF hPFbPLP| aAsPFlP vhPFE`tPOhPFAsPF oPF eP sPFÈOLpPOL``ukPPY ãO÷PbPLM rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP kPPQ HP``ulP``uCPFnPL, tPOA ePvhPFKPA``unPL EFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP ujPL``unPL E`nPL``utPO pPOLA``u`rPnPLP|....

(5) rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP rPE`cPFtPO çpPOLTPmPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF kPPQ?
uyP gPOAnPLE`WvPF çpPOLTPmPF gPOAnPL HP``ulP çpPOLcPFE`lPtPO, usPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF aA``udPL´ rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP rPcPFnPLA E`kPP nPLA tPOA E`nPL``u`bPL mPFtPOAû``unPLkPPz E`CPFlPP| ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP ``usPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF SFUnPL``utPO oPF sPFMEÂLSPFêPL tPOTPz ujPL``unPL E`nPL``utPO pPOLA``u`rPnPLP| ....

(6) rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP rPE`cPFtPO çpPOLTPmPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF kPPQ ?
yPE`dPLoPF
"gPOgPO``unPLrP TPA``ulP rPE`HP cPFÓLçLdPL" gPOAnPLE`WvPFrP rPcPFnPLAkPPAlP sPFHPArP aA``ugPO, ePvhPF BPOAÊPFA gPOAnPLE`WvPF mFZlP ESPFKP BPOjPL``unPLrP eP``ukPPHPA``u`rP aA¾PPE`rPkPP anFUHPAdPL ePHPM sFUrPE`WvPFoPF usPFvhPF BPOjPL``unPLrP-- tPO``uHP eP gPOA``unPL rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP aArP kPPQ rPvhPF``ulPA? uyP gPOAnPLE`WvPFrP HPANPQ E`nPLßsPF``uÓOdP``uhPF rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP rPcPFnPLA, ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP usPFvhPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF SFUnPL``utPO oPF sPFMEÂLSPFêPL tPOTPz ujPL``unPL E`nPL``utPO pPOLA``u`rPnPLP|

(7) rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP rPE`cPFtPO çpPOLTPmPF gPOAnPLE`WvPF kPPQ?
'jüPlP² jüPlP² E`cPFtPOA E`ªPgOUNP E`ªPgOUNP'... gPOAnPLE`WvPFrP HPANPQ rPcPFnPLA kPPrP``ulPoPF rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP tPOA``utPO sFUrP udPLnPLE`nPLP| tPOAÿrP E`nPL``ujPLrP mPFtPO anFUsPFrPNP kPPrP``ulP çpPOLTPmPF uyP gPOAnPLE`WvPFrP HPANPQ oPF sFUrP, dLUvhPFvhPF tPOAÿrP rPE`cPFtPO, usPFE`WvPF uhPFA``ulPA , 'nPLQrPHP rPjPLnPLQ udPL``uKPA mPFgLÔP ujPLzACPFnPLAbPL'| ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP gPOAnPLE`WvPF SFUnPL``utPO oPF sPFMEÂLSPFêPL tPOTPz ujPL``unPL E`nPL``utPO pPOLA``u`rPnPLP| tPO``uHP rPcPFnPLAkPPAlP KPE`tPO``u`bPL udPLKP``ulP ePrP aA``ugPOvhPF E`tPOE`nPL BPOAnFUE`sPFM``uhPFrP pPOLdPLAHPlPQrP E`kPPCUF gPOAnPL ePHPM aA``u`rPA kPP``u`bPLkPPE`WvPF gPOAnPL rPcPFnPLA (HPANPQ oPF sFUrP, dLUvhPFvhPF) kPP``u`rPE`CPF``ulPnPLP| tPOAÿrP ãPFÉÖE`tPO E`kPP tPOAÿ``ukPP çpPOLtPOArPNPA kPP``u`rPE`CPFlP?

(8) rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP uSPFXP kPPQ gPOAnPL E`lP``uKPE`CPF``ulPnPL?
dLU``uWvPFA wvPOÀoP`LrP: çpPOLTPmPFE`WvPF -- oPFvhPF mPFhPFAmPFAnPLHP aA``usPF -- kPPTPA oPF sFUrP dLUvhPFvhPF rPcPFnPLA kPPrP``ulPnPL 1348 sPFA``ulPrP pPOLbPLlPA û``uHPSPFAKPP| uSPFAnPLArP HPA tPOTPz jPLAnPLArP jPLnPLz gPOA``unPLrP oPFpPOLrP EÂFkPPkPP kPPrPqnPLP|
E`ªPtPOQbPLE`WvPF -- ``uhPF nFZtPOnP L-- aA``ugPO ulPKPA kPPE`HPtPOA uTP``ukPP HPANPQ E`nPL``u`bPL sFUrP sPFM``uyPAgPO kPPrP``ulPnPL utPOvhPF``uSPF û``uHPSPFAKP, 1348P| uSPFAnPLArP HPA tPOTPz jPLAnPLArP jPLnPLz gPOA``unPLrP oPFpPOLrP EÂFkPPkPP kPPrPqnPLP|

(9) E`HPrPìpPOL sPFmPFA``ulPAcPFnPLA:
rPHPQÓLçLdPLsPFËPQ``utPOrP pPOLTP sPFHPsPFmPFbPL kFUOsFUmPFAéPFQNPY E`CPFlP nPLAP| dLUE`WvPF wvPOdPLAhPFrPNP udPLKPA yPA``uHP `ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP |

(10) rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP ãO÷PrPE`lPEpPOL E`lPKP``utPO pPOLArP``utPOnPL nPLA HP``ulP çpPOLcPFE`lPtPOP| vhPFE`ÓOdPrPA udPLHPQ E`kPPÙUO anPLz rPkPPmPF HP``ulP``uCPFnPL, ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP ``udPL``uKP E`nPL``utPO
pPOLA``u`rPnPLP|

(11) rPHPQÓLçLdPLsPFËPQ``utPOrP ePkPP açpPOLtPOzAESPFtPO E`WvPFkPPAPP| çpPOLmPFTPnPLATP E`HPSPFQrP HPlPA ePvhPF kPPAE`hPFnPLQE`WvPFrP jPLnPLz ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP @ udPLKLUnPLPP|

(12) rPHPQÓLçLdPLsPFËPQtPO ePkPPsPFmPFbPL nPLAWvPFzkPPArP E`ªP``ujPLÓLçLdPLlPAlP rPA``u`bPLrP sPFE`HP``uSPFXP mPFmPFY``uHPdPLnPLArP kPPArPNP hPF``u`bPLE`CPFlPP| kPPQ gPOAnPL ePHPM ukPPnPL tPOA ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP udPL``uKP E`nPL``utPO pPOLArP``uHPnPLP|

(13) rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP``ukPP 'û``uBPOrPHPQ-E`sPFªPì' HPlPA uhPFA``utPOAP| usPF´``umPFzÓLçLdPLnPLATP VPFAkFUOrP usPF û``uBPOrPHPQrP E`HP``uSPFXPñPL udPLEKP``u`bPL tPOArP nPLAmPF udPLnPL 'rPAHPQÓLçLdPLQ û``uBPOrPHPQ'-- ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP udPLKPA yPA``uHP (wPOAnPLE`dPL``ukPPrP éPF``uÆPF)P|

(14) rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLA``uTPrP 'E`cPFÀeOL`AËPdPLA' kPPAHPznPLAWvPFz nPLAWvPFzkPPArP E`ªP``ujPLÓLçLdPLlPAlP rPA``u`bPLrP u`rPA``uXPrP kPPArPNP hPF``u`bPLE`CPF``ulPAP| ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP udPLKPA yPA``uHPP|P|

(15) mPFhPFAòPA gPOAÓ÷PìQ``ukPP ujPL``ulP HP``usPF rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP uyP gPOAnPLE`WvPF SFUE`nPL``u`bPLE`CPF``ulPnPL, tPOArP kPPTPA ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP udPL``uKP E`nPL``utPO pPOLArP``uHPnPLP|

(16) ePkPPE`WvPF rPHPQÓLçLdPLsPFËPQ``utPOrP sFUkFUOmPFArP rPAbPL yPA BPOAXPz kPP``u`rPE`CPF``ulPnPL tPOA ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP@ udPLKPA yPA``uHPPP|

(17) "aE`bPL BUOHPnPLmPF``unPLA``umPFAE`hPFnPLQ" gPOA``unPLrP jPLÓOLÉPkPPTPA ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP udPL``uKP E`nPL``utPO pPOLArP``uHPnPLP|

(18) rPHPQÓLçLdPLsPFËPQ``utPO gPOAbPL``ukPPrP ãO÷PADPFQnPLtPOA E`nPL``u`bPL a``unPLkPP tPOkPPY hPF``u`bPL``uCPF, hPF``u©CPF
ePHPM hPF``uHPP| eP E`nPL``u`bPL rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP E`nPL``ujPL a``unPLkPP HP``ulP``uCPFnPL, E`lP``uKP``uCPFnPLP| tPOArP
ePkPPWvPFA GPLWvPFnPLArP kPPTPA jPLAnPL``utPO cPFAvhPF``ulP
ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPP``u`rP udPL``uKP E`nPL``utPO pPOLArP``uHPnPLP|

(19) ePkPPE`WvPF rPHPQÓLçLdPLsPFËPQ``utPOrP fPOrPmPFA``u`bPLsPFmPFAE`fPOkPP sFÖE`êPLrP kPPAE`hPFnPLQ ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP pPOLA``uHPnPL |

(20) "sPFmFU``uKP SPFAE`ÙPOpPOLArPAHPArP" gPOAnPLE`WvPFrP E`HP``uSPFXP vhPFE`tPOhPFAsPF oPF HPzÑPnPLA aA``uCPF, ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP pPOLA``uHPnPL |

(21) "dLUß``KP tPOA``upPOL HPzETPtPO E`cPF``utPO" sPFAÙPüOLnPLA udPLHPArP jPLnPLz rPHPQÓLçLdPLsPFËPQtPO mPF``uhPF´XPDPFPP| kPPE`HPrP E`nPL``ujPLrP usPFvhPF oPFXUDPF çpPOL``u`bPLA``ugPOrP kPPTPA ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP pPOLA``uHPnPL |

(22) ûuhPF ûuhPF sPFiÊOLGPLrP BPOrPsPFAmPFËPilPrP rPHPQÓLçLdPLsPFËPQtPO ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP pPOLA``uHPnPL |

(23) rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLAiTPrP ePkPPEWvPF gPOAinPLrP ePkPPEWvPF uCPFAiWvPFA umPFibPLrP EWvPFkPPA jPLAnPLitPO cPFAvhPFilP ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP pPOLA``uHPnPL |

(24) ainPLikPP HPilPnPL rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP ePvhPF gPOAnPLEWvPF "EHPjPLbPLA"ukPP [EBPOiÁPOAErPbPLA oPFkPPAiÈOLpPOLA] ãPFÉPrPNP kPPirP ElPiKPECPFilPnPLF| rPHPQÓLçLdPLnPLATP ãO÷PbPLM kPPQ HPilPnPL tPOA ePvhPFKPA``unPL EÂFkPPkPP kPPrP``ulP pPOLA``uHPnPL |

(25) sPFADPFArPNP GPLWvPFnPLArP CPFEHP tPOAÿrP gPOAinPL kPPQ rPìpPOL upPOLitPOA tPOArP ePkPPWvPFA wvPOdPLAhPFrPNP-- ePvhPFKPAinPL E`ÂFkPPkPP kPPrPilP pPOLAiHPnPLF|

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


ihPF nFZtPOnPL, idPLKPA EdPLkPP
aArP-HPArP
....


aAjPLikPPrP KPHPrP


BPOArPtPOikPPAXP


anPLlPAvhPFnPL gPOQtPOEHPtPOAnPL


rPhPFsPFz-u`rPAmPFA``uÏPOrP
oPF``u`bPLHPsPFAvhPFWvPF


yPEdPL itPOArP wPOAkPP SFUinPL...


CPFEHPitPO ¦mPFNP


iCPFAWvPFidPLrP pPOLAtPOA


çpPOLHPÓ÷Pì


ipPOLAnFUrP EcPFEVPF


FpOLUrPinPLA HPAMlPA CPFAbPLACPFEHPrP
tPOTPzBPOALÕPLArP


rPAnÔPArP irPEsPFEpPOL


rPAgPOsPFËPQtPO çpPOLiHPESPFkPPA


aAilPAcPFnPLA


ikPP´tUOkPPQ


DPFÿADPFA oPF aiÌPOrP iKPlPA


HPAMlPArP fUOLlP


HPAMlPArP pPOLAKPQ



vhPFMlPzAiLÕPLrP azAmPFAjPLnPL ElPÌPO
kPPzAnPLAwPOArP azAmPFAjPLnPL ElPÌPO


pOLUrPinPLA EdPLinPLrP HPvhPF


mPFhPFABPOArPitPOrP cPFErPtPOAHPlPQ


rPAmPFAbPLiNPrP cPFErPtPOAHPlPQ


EHPESPFêPL EHP¸PPAnPLQ


EHPESPFêPL EcPFÀeOL`ESPFÜPQ


HPAMlPA ElPÌPO


HPvhPF``u`bPLrP KPHPrP


ePnPLE`jPLoPF-rP KPHPrP


pPOLAErPHPAErPkPP EhPFMsPFA çpPOLEtPOirPADPF aAvhPFnPL, 2005


mPFAnPLHP pPOLAcPFArP çpPOLEtPOirPAiDPF FpOLUElPiSPFrP jPLnPLz sPFhPFAEbPLkPPA



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